Recent advances in genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided new tools to systematically investigate the human microbiome, and the opportunity to decipher the role that microbes play in health and disease. This project is studying the human vaginal microbiome to identify the bacterial species present under various conditions over a woman’s lifespan, but develop novel diagnostic tools and interventions to restore and retain health. Major research themes will continue with understanding of the vaginal microbiome, but also explore the associations behind vaginal microbiota and preterm delivery, genital tract infection, and reproductive health. Conditions associated with an imbalance in vaginal microbiota afflict several million Canadian women each year, and accumulate health care costs of billions of dollars annually. This project is expected to lead to significant breakthroughs in the care of women in Canada and around the world.