Organ and bone marrow transplants are well-established treatments for patients with incurable medical conditions. However, major gaps and obstacles prevent transplantation from being fully effective. The Canadian National Transplant Research Program will unify the following projects: 1) Improving organs for transplant through targeted organ protection and repair 2) Increasing organ and cell donation through improved donor identification 3) Examining biologic markers of early problems in transplant function and identifying targets for drug treatments 4) Implementing strategies to avoid rejection of transplants and side-effects of medication 5) Predicting and preventing viral complications of transplantation 6) Targeting age-related and health care system problems experienced by children and teenagers with transplants. To support these innovative projects, the program will integrate the management of experimental protocols, data, clinical trials, biobanks and registries across all studies. A core team will examine ethical, economic, legal and social issues related to transplantation. The team’s critical priorities include creating and sharing knowledge with a wide range of stakeholders and training new transplant researchers to sustain progress into the future. Overall, the research team aims to achieve improvements to donation effectiveness, to transplant policies and processes and to individual transplant outcomes.