June 27: Scientists lay ground rules for rewriting human DNA
June 26: Gene therapy for Fabry disease – A world first
June 23: Excessive hand washing? Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) linked to gene mutations associated with autism
June 22: Cancer patients can learn ‘good and bad news’ by sequencing their disease genome
June 21: What role should society play in decisions about gene editing of human germline?
June 20: To test or not to test? When is genetic screening for diseases a smart move?
June 19: Can personalized medicine help those with chronic diseases that have environmental triggers?
June 16: Solving crimes with DNA evidence: Fact and fiction
June 15: NASA: Year in space by astronaut twins altered how their genes work
June 14: Hoping for a baby? New DNA test identifies fertility risk factors in women
June 13: For people with congenital hearing loss, gene therapy successful in mice offers promise
June 12: Will you win the cancer treatment lottery? It’s in the genes
June 8: Smartphone app diagnoses genetic diseases with a snapshot
June 7: Your roommate’s genes could influence your health and behaviour
June 6: Breast cancer linked to genetic ‘hotspots’ formerly thought to be harmless
June 5: Brain cancer in children: Unique ‘genetic drivers’ open door to precision medical treatments
June 2: Whole genome sequencing fuels DNA ‘intelligence revolution’
June 1: Spread of pancreatic cancer fueled by epigenetic changes
May 31: ‘Social network’ of genes could reveal disease pathways
May 30: Syndactyly: Family’s ‘fused fingers’ deformity sheds light on human genome
May 29: Biology and genetic engineering innovations converging in 2017 to ‘blow our minds’
May 26: Random acts of kindness may be fueled by microbes
May 25: ‘Dark genome’ could yield answers to complex genetic diseases
May 24: Lung, pancreatic cancers linked to critical gene mutation
May 23: Brains of people with autism share distinct genetic ‘signature’
May 22: Step toward synthetic life: Genetic code expanded from four to six letters
May 21: Schizophrenia linked to mutation of memory, sense-of-direction gene
May 20: Smartphone microscope could analyze DNA in the field
May 19: Elephant genetics offer promise in fight against cancer
May 18: Lack of exercise may contribute to dementia as much as genetic factors
May 17: Heart defects in babies with cleft lip and palate linked to gene defect
May 16: 5 unsolved mysteries about CRISPR
May 15: Genetic fingerprint explains prostate cancer’s aggressive growth
May 14: Hidden code regulates harmful mutations of our genome, aiding evolution
May 13: How bacteria inspired the birth of CRISPR gene editing
May 12: Cultural, social experiences may be reflected in epigenetic marks
May 11: Sequencing pioneer sets sights on $100 genome
May 10: Cancer thrives by outwitting cell’s normal self-destruct mechanism
May 9: 7 ways CRISPR gene editing could transform our lives
May 8: Fruit fly study finds eating too much sugar alters gene expression, shortens life span. Human implications?
May 5: Advances in CRISPR, gene editing helping ‘clean tech’ get off ground after years of failure
May 4: ‘Hearts-in-a-dish’: Gene editing and stem cell technologies unravel mysteries of heart disease
May 3: More than skin deep: Discrimination can influence how genes express themselves and negatively impact health
May 2: From 2016 onwards: Gene therapy’s transition from idea to revolutionary medicine
May 1: Searching for DNA in sewage may help public health officials monitor emerging diseases
April 28: Protein linked to BRCA2 gene holds potential for precise breast, ovarian cancer treatment
April 27: Genetic engineering successfully reverses aging in mice, rejuvenating organs
April 26: Discovery of gene mutations for motor disorder leads to treatment in children
April 25: Gene drive could extinguish diseases like malaria by wiping out mosquitoes
April 24: Sleep disorders share genetic connection with obesity and schizophrenia
April 20: How biotechnology is revolutionizing our lives
April 19: Guide to CRISPR gene editing revolution
April 18: Genes essential for healthy fetal development tied to autism
April 17: Gaucher, Parkinson diseases both originate from mutations on same gene
April 14: Personality genes correlate with psychiatric disorders
April 13: How one gene influences many diseases
April 12: DNA mutations can influence far away genes as easily as those close-by
April 11: How can scientists prevent unintended consequences from CRISPR gene editing?
April 10: Many patients diagnosed with a genetic disease may actually have two
April 7: Aging: Have scientists identified an RNA ‘smoking gun’?
April 6: “Intelligent” DNA helps repair cell damage and prevent tumors
April 5: Snapshots of patients’ faces may help identify genetic diseases
April 4: Mice cured of hemophilia using gene therapy shows promise for human treatment
April 3: Smog in Beijing contains bacteria with antibiotic-resistant genes, sparking public fears
March 31: “Uncombable hair syndrome” linked to rare gene mutations
March 30: Reversing aging: Cellular damage could be reversed by activating genes in mitochondria
March 29: Identical twin studies show acne mostly genetic, and linked to prostate and breast cancer
March 28: Can CRISPR gene editing restore sight?
March 27: Gene studies show coffee is no magic elixir for many diseases but does provide some unique health benefits
March 24: High achievers tend to marry people with similar DNA
March 23: Cancer can emerge from changes to epigenome, not just gene mutations
March 22: Genetics could help teachers tailor learning to individual students
March 21: Schizophrenics have fewer nerve cells in their brain due to genetic mutation
March 20: LipidSeq: Cheaper, more accurate genetic test for high cholesterol
March 17: Massive, landmark project sets to identify genetic risk of coronary disease in young people
March 16: Why laptop-sized DNA lab kit could revolutionize how children learn about genetics
March 15: Could CRISPR edit human genome to block HIV from infecting immune cells?
March 14: Genetic clues to understanding inherited deafness
March 13: CRISPR may hold key to curing muscular dystrophy
March 10: Search underway for ‘super donors’ to facilitate gene therapy
March 9: Infamous HIV “Patient Zero” declared innocent after genetic analysis
March 8: Genetics of Danish high school students reveals surprising homogeneity
March 7: Staying pregnant: Recurrent miscarriages linked to gene mutations
March 6: What humans share with viruses: Both need as few as 3,000 genes to function healthily
March 3: Sources of inherited diseases may emerge with map of complex gene interactions
March 2: Patterns found in DNA sequences associated with autism
March 1: ‘Black and white twins’: How genetics, epigenetics explain non-identical identical twins
February 28: Looking back on gene editing’s thirty years of development
February 27: ExAC: Scores of mutations once thought lethal are innocuous
February 24: Injecting genes directly into brain may treat Alzheimer’s disease
February 23: Could natural genetic transfers from bacteria to humans contribute to cancer?
February 22: Genetics of modern Irish reveal why giants are so common in country’s folklore
February 21: Male test for infertility detects epigenetic changes linked to smoking, obesity
February 20: Could doctors use DNA tests to screen for opiate addiction?
February 17: Does one genetic glitch determine risk of both autism and schizophrenia?
February 16: Autism gene? Rare tumor helps build map of how disorder works
February 15: Twin Studies: Genetics May Explain Adult ADHD, Alcohol Abuse, Binge Eating
February 14: Bipolar disorder’s genetic basis, how lithium works as treatment
February 13: Structure of primary cannabinoid receptor is revealed
February 9: Genetic switch may dictate if you crave more high-fat or high-sugar foods
February 8: Turning body’s own defenses to fight tumors: Does CAR-T work?
February 8: Our cells use genes from mother’s and father’s DNA differently
February 7: Genes tied to birth weight in infants also linked to diabetes, heart disease later in life
February 6: Gene therapy technique developed to prevent cancer metastasis shows promise
February 3: What studying rare genetic disorder teaches us about human’s ‘sixth sense’
February 2: Each of us has a genetically-programmed aging clock
February 1: Concerns about amateur scientists toying with CRISPR rise as price drops
January 31: Should genome scanning be extended to patients with no family history of diseases?
January 30: Is Gene Therapy currently as useful as predicted?
January 27: Are migraines genetic?
January 26: U of T scientists create first map of gene interactions in cells
January 25: First quadriplegic to undergo stem cell treatment can now use upper body
January 24: Going On Vacation Can Actually Change Your Gene Activity
January 23: Scientists develop stem cell techniques that uses magnets to repair bones
January 20: How genetics affects our diet and lifespan
January 19: Why do hereditary diseases stubbornly stay in human gene pool?
January 18: Beyond BRCA: New, rare genes linked to breast cancer
January 17: Low-calorie diet may delay onset of rogue elements that damage DNA
January 16: Drug administered pre-birth may stop common gene mutations from causing blindness
January 13: Scientists uncover our tongue’s sixth taste and why we love carbs
January 12: Is ‘warrior gene’ responsible for violent behaviour?
January 11: Personalized cancer treatments struggling to overcome patient deaths, severe side effects
January 10: Gene therapy to cure sickle cell anemia in final stages of development
January 9: Texas researchers plan to create national obesity genome registry
January 6: Genes play major role not only in IQ, but in academic success too
January 5: Discovery of essential genes in mice crucial to precision medicine efforts in humans
January 4: Smoking has long lasting ‘footprint’ on human genome
December 16: MIND Institute aims to conduct massive study on genetics of autism
December 15: Video: CRISPR pioneer Jennifer Doudna gives her thoughts on future of gene editing
December 14: SkinGun’ sprays stem cells to heal burns and wounds
December 13: Kuwait’s DNA collection law could lead to mass deportations
December 12: Scientists already looking for better alternatives to CRISPR
December 9: Uses for DNA may spread to far-flung fields like archaeology and fine arts
December 8: Scientists see genes switching off in live human brains for first time
December 7: Scientists gradually identifying genes linked to depression
December 6: Gene fix for muscle wasting may help improve gene treatments, save lives
December 5: Precision medicine revolution moves to developing world
December 2: German institute deploys transgenics to fight harmful insects without toxins
December 1: Synthetic biology launches into new frontier
November 30: Faulty stem cell clinics proliferate in Australia, leading to deaths
November 29: Genes may play key role in timing of your first child, number of children you have
November 28: Gene mutation linked to aggression and healthy body weight
November 25: Genetics key to why world’s greatest solo climber doesn’t feel fear
November 24: Curing diseases with embryonic stem cells proving to be much harder than expected
November 23: Everything you need to know about CRISPR gene editing
November 22: Video: DNA looks much different than what you might think
November 21: Athletes are keeping their distance from a genetic test for concussion risks
November 18: CRISPR gene editing may help treat sickle cell disease
November 17: Cancer survivors at high risk to develop obesity
November 16: Large genetic database reveals how our individual DNA differs
November 15: World celebrates 155th birthday of Nettie Stevens who discovered sex chromosomes
November 14: Why haven’t we cured cancer?
November 10: New “ink” allows experts to view effects of stem cells in real-time
November 9: Where does cloning stand 20 years after Dolly the sheep?
November 8: Food fraud: How do we fight a problem we don’t yet understand?
November 7: Women may be more resilient to Alzheimer’s genes than men
November 4: Can gene therapy reverse aging?
November 3: After 8 years and $8 million, gene therapy begins for 12-year-old with rare neurological disorder
November 2: CRISPR gene editing could eliminate AIDS virus
November 1: Synthetic bacteria programmed to deliver cancer drugs inside body directly to tumour
October 31: First human CRISPR trial to be conducted in China to treat lung cancer
October 28: Two genes linked to enhanced breast cancer survival identified
October 27: DNA accounts for almost 10% of academic achievement, scientists find
October 26: Scientists suspect link between red hair, freckles and skin cancer
October 25: Ribosomal DNA may hold key to heritable diseases
October 24: Scientists achieve breakthrough in large-scale stem cell production
October 21: Can genetics determine your perfect diet?
October 20: Healthy and elderly? Genes for cognitive function matter more than those for longevity
October 19: UBC Scientists discover virus that steals CRISPR machinery from bacteria
October 18: Scientists can now deliver medicine with DNA ‘cage’ and flash of light
October 17: Gene therapy now consistently and effectively treating hemophilia
October 14: Will self-limiting gene drive alleviate concerns over technology’s use?
October 13: US Federal panel gives first us of CRISPR in humans green light
October 12: Seagulls may aid spread of E. coli strain that resists ‘last-resort antibiotic’
October 11: What determines our personality: Genetics, environment, or both?
October 7: Germs found on transit system barely pose threat, despite popular beliefs
October 6: Scientists believe they have uncovered all major genes linked to bowel cancer
October 5: No single ‘fountain of youth’ yet identified in genome
October 4: What can a year in space do to your genes?
October 3: Genetic evidence may direct Alzheimer’s research away from amyloid beta as disease’s cause
September 30: Analyses of gene activity may yield clues to roots of autism
September 29: NFL’s 49ers, biotech company join forces to recruiting fans for genome research
September 28: Can silencing of gene for ‘love hormone’ reduce sociability?
September 27: China aims to lead as global superpower in precision medicine
September 26: Why we don’t inherit our father’s mitochondrial DNA
September 23: Travelling abroad can incorporate new genes into your DNA
September 22: ‘New era of medicine?’ First children cured of genetic diseases with gene therapy
September 21: Genes can predict success in life, but not happiness
September 20: FDA chief promotes new online tool for Precision Medicine Initiative
September 19: Breakthroughs in growing human tissue create excitement in biotech market
September 16: CRISPR may revolutionize disease diagnostics
September 15: Massive genomic study identifies six types of liver cancer
September 14: Synthetic biologists fight snake venom with engineered DNA
September 13: Real-life ‘X-men’ present surprising genetic anomalies and ‘superhuman’ abilities
September 12: How much is athletic ability influenced by genes?
September 9: CRISPR can edit RNA, scientists report
September 8: Gene database promises greater accuracy to breast cancer risk assessment
September 7: UBC scientists and team have identified a mutation strongly associated with the progressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS).
September 6: Fathers’ lifestyle, age affect children’s epigenome
September 2: Massive analysis of genetic data reveals genes behind various traits, diseases
September 1: Scientists identify genes behind nose shape
August 31: Is our understanding of genetics approaching an historic turning point?
August 30: Genes may be responsible for chronic pain
August 29: Common genetic risk links autism to epilepsy
August 26: Children of older dads at higher risk for psychiatric disorders: Is mutated sperm to blame?
August 25: Your our genes may influence what microbes reside in your gut
August 24: Scientists hope largest ever coral gene database can help save ocean ecosystem
August 23: Geneticists have plans to build synthetic human genome: Here’s what you need to know
August 22: How effectively could genetic tests prevent disease?
August 19: Gut bacteria may play vital role in Crohn’s disease
August 18: Scientists criticize New Yorker epigenetics article for ‘misleading’ information
August 17: Genes influence academic achievement, but they’re not the most important factor
August 16: Brain, gut microbiome connection may play role in multiple sclerosis
August 15: Genetics changing how we define cancer
August 12: When will CRISPR be safe enough to translate to therapy?
August 11: Big Data aiming towards genetic solutions to cancer
August 10: Gene therapy may give way to new type I diabetes treatment
August 9: Is the human gene pool in danger?
August 8: Single molecule may fight all kinds of viruses, IBM researchers hope
August 5: Scientists Talk Privately About Creating a Synthetic Human Genome
August 4: Genes responsible for evolution of Darwin’s finches’ beaks identified
August 3: Genes point to potential treatments for digestive diseases
August 2: Largest ever study on genetics and autism aims to advance personalized approach to treatment
July 29: Large analysis finds common genetics links between depression, neuroticism, and sense of well-being
July 28: For first time, researchers find genes that explain differences in how we each experience happiness
July 27: Genes’ mechanisms for protein production called into question
July 26: CRISPR co-discoverer Emmanuelle Charpentier continuing advances in gene editing
July 25: Certain genes raise mothers’ likelihood of having twins
July 22: Do genes make a murderer?
July 21: Autism, bipolar disorder share similar genetic risk factors
July 20: Cracking the da Vinci code: Scientists, historians on quest to sequence artist’s DNA
July 19: Genetics of breast cancer mapped in medical ‘milestone’
July 18: Skin cells reprogrammed into heart and brain cells
July 15: Gene therapy likely best shot at curing brain diseases
July 14: Microbiome remains malleable after birth
July 13: Artificial sperm on horizon? Scientists reprogram human skin cells into sperm parent cells
July 12: Scientists search for disease resistance genes to improve treatments
July 11: Researchers track cell development using CRISPR
July 8: 'Vegetarian' gene variant, more common in India, makes up for fatty acids in meat
July 7: Lawyer’s 20-year mission to deny human gene patents succeeds in Australia, US
July 6: Finer Cancer Screens Catch More Cancer Clues
July 5: Genes responsible for frizzy hair, unibrows identified
July 4: Can GM maggots save us from antibiotic resistant bacteria?
June 30: Precision medicine for rare cancers could point to effective treatments
June 29: How did scientists succeed in creating ‘minimal’ genome?
June 28: What determines baby’s sex? Ancient viral genes may hold answer
June 27: Your housemate may be altering your immune system
June 24: Do certain microbes raise Alzheimer’s risk? Researchers debate
June 23: Genes linked to autism also common in general population
June 22: Scientists edit HIV out of human cells using CRISPR
June 21: Status of gene patents in Canada still uncertain despite recent legal battles
June 20: Race for cancer blood test has big name investors, unlikely scientific collaborations
June 17th: How useful are cancer gene tests?
June 16th: iPhone app searching for genetics of postpartum depression
June 15th: What makes you a righty or a lefty?
June 14th: CRISPR promises to revive endangered species, introduce new pets
June 13th: DNA tests don’t motivate healthy behavior, finds review of research
June 10th: Epigenetic inheritance may contribute to diabetes risk
June 9th: Genetic screening for breast cancer offers information, but often no guidance
June 8th: Newly created stem cell with half a genome may boost fertility treatments
June 7th: For precision medicine to work, genetics knowledge needs to catch up to science
June 6th: Synthetic ‘origami’ DNA delivers drugs within body
June 3rd: Gene therapy, not editing, saved baby Layla
June 2nd: Down-Syndrome Screening: A One-Parent Test for a Two-Parent Risk
June 1st: Fecal Transplants Made (Somewhat) More Palatable
May 30th: Genomics Aids Gestation of Prenatal Molecular Diagnostic Tests
May 27th: International effort needed to contain growing antibiotic resistance
May 26th: New discovery challenges long-held model of DNA replication
May 25th: What does dust in your house say about you?
May 24th: Microbes make strides in cancer treatment
May 23rd: New study adds steam to chronic fatigue syndrome controversy
May 20th: Unlikely agent for fighting cancer found in herpes virus
May 19th: Gene saves life of one-year-old with leukemia in medical first
May 18th: Geneediting technique that can rapidly transform species raises safety concerns
May 17th: Bacterial genes that make mercury deadly identified across the world
May 16th: Do gut microbes exert influence over the brain?
May 13th: Mysterious DNA in brain unexpected blessing for evolution
May 12th: Parkinson’s treatment shows promise in early trials
May 11th: There’s a Mystery Machine That Sculpts the Human Genome: DNA ‘origami’ helps genes function how they’re supposed to
May 10th: Ancient Alaskan children’s DNA tells story of earliest migration to America
May 9th: UCLA researchers discover more than 3,000 genes in a little-studied part of the human genome; newly-discovered ‘dark matter’ of genome helps immune system function
May 6th: What genetics reveals about traditional Chinese medicine
May 5th: DNA ‘origami’ helps genes function how they’re supposed to
May 4th: First genome ‘surgery’ performed on DNA’s 3D structure
May 3rd: Indigenous peoples seek to become partners, not guinea pigs in genetics research
May 2nd: Next-generation genome sequencing pushes clinical research
April 29th: Couple wins ‘wrongful birth’ case after prenatal DNA test missed defects
April 28th: Heredity increasingly vital for understanding cancer risk
April 27th: Frozen eggs significantly less likely to lead to successful IVF
April 26th: Gene causes nearsightedness in bookworm kids
April 25th: Obesity linked to birth order, with highest risk in eldest siblings
April 22nd: Glow-in-the-dark protein helps neuroscientists peer into brain
April 21st: For cancer, timing and order of mutations determine outcome
April 20th: Is century-old remedy the solution to antibiotic resistance?
April 19th: Research challenges popular beliefs about epigenetics
April 18th: Neuroscientist explains interrelation of pain and pleasure
April 15th: How much access to DNA databases should be shared with public?
April 14th: Autism Speaks launching largest open-access genome database for autism research
April 13th: Using CRISPR gene editing to shut down mosquitoes as disease carriers
April 12th: Babies leave stem cell imprint in mom’s body long after birth
April 11th: Do genes predict how your body is aging better than years?
April 8th: Endangered species’ genomes help conservationists judge risk of extinction
April 7th: Population genomics can help identify genes underlying rare diseases
April 6th: The Age of the Red Pen: Societal challenges in the coming age of gene editing
April 5th: Genome databases, immunotherapy combination may be key in fighting cancer
April 4th: Vision gene therapy helps blind mice see again
April 1st: Human organ transplants from GM pigs may soon be a reality
March 31st: Genetic analysis shows prostate cancer to be five distinct diseases
March 30th: Early life stress, gut bacteria affect later risk for anxiety and depression
March 29th: Ribo-T’, first artificial ribosome, opens path to designer drugs
March 28th: New gene test aims to put end to doping in sports
March 25th: Mitochondrial dysfunction may play role in heart failure
March 24th: Artificial blood vessels synthesized to resist clotting
March 23rd: Could stem cells hold the key to treating incurable mitochondrial diseases?
March 22nd: What are the genes behind celiac disease inheritance?
March 21st: Natural genetic mutations inspire promising bio-pharmaceutical treatments
March 18th: Synthetic components added to DNA expand genetic alphabet
March 17th: Diets personalized to people’s biology could help curb disease
March 16th: Many people avoid genetic tests for fear of discrimination
March 15th: Some epigenetic changes in DNA are heritable, and research is beginning to explain how
March 14th: Researchers grow mammary gland in petri dish to study breast cancer
March 11th: Jumping genes make your genome not quite human
March 10th: Transhumanist dilemma: Should we be allowed unlimited access to our own genetic information?
March 9th: Experimental cancer treatment literally dissolves tumor
March 8th: Genetic analysis reveals no common link in autism
March 7th: IBM’s Watson promises breakthroughs in personalized medicine
March 4th: Bacterium’s genome defies common notions of evolution
March 3rd: Newly discovered DNA base added to genetic code
March 2nd: Some worry about potential of DNA ‘printing’ to make medicines, plants, people
March 1st: Maple syrup may be newest ally in fight against antibiotic resistance
February 29th: Treating multiple sclerosis may rely on stem cell stimulation
February 26th: First-of-its-kind genetic map created for wheat
February 25th: Microbiome of western gut more sterile, less diverse than rural populations
February 24th: Can artists teach geneticists to comprehend masses of Big Data?
February 23rd: How biotech is revolutionizing personalized medicine
February 22nd: Airborne antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in Texas may pose major threat to health
February 19th: Why do we need sleep?
February 18th: Barbara McClintock and the discovery of jumping genes: Scientist’s quest to prove genes ‘jump’ forever shook up genetics
February 17th: After 150 years, Mendelian genetics still unchallenged by biology
February 16th: DNA storage techniques mimic Human Nature
February 12th: Genetically engineered bacterial cells ‘talk’ to each other
February 11th: Alzheimer’s not contagious, despite slew of headlines
February 10th: Testicular cancer risk mostly genetic
February 9th: Ohio’s pending Down syndrome abortion ban sparks emotional responses
February 8th: Some UK scientists arguing for embryonic gene modification in ‘morally acceptable’ circumstances
February 5th: US syn bio corporation diving into GM mosquitoes, pest control research
February 4th: App store for your DNA could make personal genomics mainstream
February 3rd: Gut microbes may be to blame for autoimmune eye disease
February 2nd: Epigenetic inheritance: Holocaust survivors passed genetic marks of trauma to children
February 1st: Genetic ‘switch’ targeting fat cells may help combat obesity
January 29th: Octopus genome reveals surprising traits of sophisticated, alien-like earthling
January 28th: Why do intelligent people live longer? It’s in your DNA
January 27th: Breast cancer genetic tests, beyond BRCA, can help personalize treatment plan
January 26th: Mutations that cause infertility detected through new genotyping strategy
January 25th: Debating the perils and the promise of gene editing
January 22nd: Earliest Americans looked European, but genes tell more complicated story
January 21st: Should newborns have their genes sequenced to screen for congenital disorders?
January 20th: First strong genetic links to depression identified
January 19th: Antibiotic-resistant superbugs even deadlier than previously thought
January 18th: Sex chromosomes get messy when they swap DNA
January 15th: Ancestry following 23andMe into consumer genetics business
January 14th: What’s the ideal amount of exercise for a healthy life?
January 13th: How is genetic risk for breast cancer evaluated?
January 12th: Your genes might make you a mosquito magnet
January 11th: Is it possible to bring the extinct woolly mammoth back to life?
January 4th: Viruses point forensic scientists to bodies’ location of origin