Genome British Columbia - Genome Genomics

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Transcription and Translation Article Worksheet: Teacher’s Notes

Transcription and Translation Article Worksheet:  Teacher’s Notes

Curriculum Link -> Biology 12
Prescribed Learning Outcomes:

Cell Compounds and Biological Molecules

•    Analyse the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

DNA Replication
•    Describe DNA replication

Protein Synthesis
•    Demonstrate an understanding of the process of protein synthesis

Using the worksheet in the classroom:
•    This worksheet can be used as an introduction to the topics of transcription and translation.  You could have students answer the pre-reading questions before reading the article and then they could answer the remaining questions.  You could then review and discuss answers as a class.
•    This worksheet could also be used as an enrichment assignment after the topics of transcription and translation have been introduced to your students.  After students have read about the topics or after they have been given notes on the topics, you could use the worksheet to help consolidate their learning.  This could be used as an in-class or homework activity.

Transcription and Translation Article Worksheet KEY
The following key is composed of sample answers.  Please note that student answers may vary.

Pre-Reading Questions
1.    Define “transcription” in your own words.
Transcription might involve copying a message down and having the message located in a new location.  In the sense of DNA transcription, the DNA message is converted from the DNA language to the RNA language, which will be converted into an mRNA copy if the information is to be translated into protein.

2.    Define “translation” in your own words.
Translation changes the language of a message into another language.  In regards to mRNA translation, the mRNA language is translated into the language of proteins.

Post-Reading Questions
3.    What is “The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?”
“The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology” describes the process in which genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA and then to the final product of a protein.

4.    Now you can build a complete definition of transcription.  What happens during transcription?  Describe this process in your own words.

Transcription involves the conversion of DNA into an mRNA molecule.  This process involves many different enzymes.  The message is copied into another form, so that the mRNA molecule can leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm.

5.    What are post-transcriptional changes?  Do these modifications occur in all organisms?  Explain.

Post-transcriptional processing involves the removal of introns and modifications of the two ends of the mRNA molecules.  One end gets a 5’ cap addition and the other end receives an addition of many adenosines.  These additions prevent the mRNA from being broken down during the exportation of the molecule from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation.

These modifications only occur in eukaryotes.  Prokaryotes do not have these post-transcriptional modifications.

6.    Now you can build a complete definition of translation.  What happens during translation?  What is translated?  Describe this process in your own words.

Translation is a process that involves the conversion of the mRNA sequence into a protein product.  The tRNA and rRNA help to read this message and to combine individual amino acids into chains. These chains of amino acids are poly peptide, which transform into three dimensional structures or proteins.